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P. caudatum strain RB-1 can maintain endonuclear symbiotic bacteria Holospora species. The RB-1 was used to elucidate control mechanisms for cytological events in infection process of Holospora (escape from the host digestive vacuole, migration to the target nucleus, recognition of the host nuclear envelope, invasion inside the nucleus, and proliferation in the nucleus) and for changes of the host gene expression by infection. P. bursaria strains OS1g1N and Yad1g1N are bearing cloned Chlorella variabilis strain 1N cells in the cytoplasm, and used for infection route of the symbiotic alga.



Watanabe K, Suzuki H, Nishida T, Mishima M, Tachibana M, Fujishima M, Shimizu T, Watarai M. Identification of novel Legionella genes required for endosymbiosis in Paramecium based on comparative genome analysis with Holospora spp.
FEMS Microbiology Ecology, fiy162. Published: Aug 14, 2018.
https://doi.org/10.1093/femsec/fiy162 IF=3.495

Yukinori Nishigami, Takuya Ohmura, Atsushi Taniguchi, Shigenori Nonaka, Junichi Manabe, Takuji Ishikawa, Masatoshi Ichikawa. Influence of cellular shape on sliding behavior of ciliates.
Communicative & Integrative Biology. Published online: 15 Aug 2018.

Ewan J. A. Minter, Chris D. Lowe, Megan E. S. Sørensen, A. Jamie Wood, Duncan D. Cameron, Michael A. Brockhurst.Variation and asymmetry in host-symbiont dependence in a microbial symbiosis.
BMC Evolutionary Biology, 2018, 18:108. Published on July 9, 2018.
Doi: 10.1186/s12862-018-1227-9 IF=3.628

Takashi Nishida, Naho Hara, Kenta Watanabe, Takashi Shimizu, Masahiro Fujishima, Masahisa Watarai. Crucial role of Legionella pneumophila TolC in the inhibition of cellular trafficking in the protistan host Paramecium tetraurelia. Frontiers in Microbiology 9:800. Published online on April 25, 2018.
Doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.00800    IF=4.076

Ohmura T, Nishigami Y, Taniguchi A, Nonaka S, Manabe J, Ishikawa T, Ichikawa M. Simple mechanosense and response of cilia motion reveal the intrinsic habits of ciliates. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018, 115, 3231-36
Doi:10.1073/pnas.1718294115     IF=9.423

Kawai S, Araki S, Kodama Y. No mutual symbiosis following infection of alga-free Paramecium bursaria with symbiotic algae from Mayorella viridis.
Symbiosis. 75, 51-59, 2018.
Doi: 10.1007/s13199-017-0517-0   IF=1.36


Kawai S, Sotaro Araki S, Kodama Y. No mutual symbiosis following infection of algae-free Paramecium bursaria with symbiotic algae from Mayorella viridis.
Symbiosis, published on line 16 Oct, 2017.

Miura T, Moriya H, Iwai S. (2017). Assessing phagotrophy in the mixotrophic ciliate Paramecium bursaria using GFP-expressing yeast cells. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 364 (12), [fnx117]. DOI: 10.1093/femsle/fnx117

Ishida M, Nori M. Improved isolation method to establishe axenic strains of Paramecium. Jpn J Protozool., 2017.
DOI: 10.18980/jjprotozool. JJP16-05 Published online Apple, 2017.

Kodama Y, Nagase M, Takeshima A. Symbiotic Chlorella variabilis strain, 1 N, can influence the digestive process in the host Paramecium bursaria during early infection. Symbiosis, 71 (1), 47-55, 2017.
DOI: 10.1007/s13199-016-0411-1 Published online May 05, 2016.   IF=1.438

渡邉健太, 度会雅久. レジオネラとその宿主としての原生生物.
山口獣医学雑誌. 2017, 44, 1-8


Kodama Y., Fujishima M. Chapter 16. Paramecium as a model organism for studies on primary and secondary endosymbiosis'. In, Biocommunication in ciliates, (Ed, (Eds. Guenther Witzany, Mariusz Nowacki), Springer International Publishing Switzerland, 2016.
ISBN: 978-3-319-32209-4

Watanabe K., Nakao R, Imoto Y., Fujishima M, Tachibana M., Shimizu T., Watarai M. Ciliate Paramecium is a natural reservoir of Legionella pneumophila. Scientific Reports 6, Article number 24322 (2016).
DOI: 10.1038/srep24322 (2016).

Kuroiwa T., Ohnuma M., Imoto Y., Misumi O., Nagata N., Miyakawa I., Fujishima M,.Yagisawa F., Kuroiwa H. Genome Size of the Ultrasmall Unicellular Freshwater Green Alga, Medakamo hakoo 311, as Determined by Staining with 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole after Microwave Oven Treatments: II. Comparison with Cyanidioschyzon merolae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (n, 2n), and Chlorella variabilis. Cytologia, 81 (1), 1-8, 2016.


Iwai S., Fujiwara K., Tamura T. Maintenance of algal endosymbionts in Paramecium bursaria: a simple model based on population dynamics. Environmental Microbiology, accepted manuscript online: 2 Dec 2015.
DOI: 10.1111/1462-2920.13140

Kodama Y., Fujishima M. Differences in infectivity of endosymbiotic Chlorella variabilis that are cultivated outside the host Paramecium bursaria for 50 years and that are immediately isolated from the host cells after 1 year reendosymbiosis. Biology Open (2015) 0, 1-7.
DOI: 10.1242/bio.013946

Narematsu N., Quek R., Chiam K.-H. , Iwadate Y. Ciliary metachronal wave propagation on the compliant surface of Paramecium cells. Cytoskeleton, 72, 63-646, 2015.
DOI: 10.1002/cm.21266

Dohra H., Fujishima M., Suzuki H. Analysis of amino acid and codon usage in Paramecium bursaria. FEBS Letters, 589, 3113-3118, 2015.
DOI: 10.1016/j.febslet.2015.08.033

Goto H, Nakajima K. Cultivation of paramecium caudatum in the presence of physiologically active substances, and a redox active polymer. International Letter of Chemical Astrom., 7, 26-29, 2015.


Kodama Y., Fujishima M. Symbiotic Chlorella variabilis incubated under constant dark condition for 24 hours loses ability to avoid digestion by host lysosomal enzymes in digestive vacuoles of host ciliate Paramecium bursaria. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 90, 946-955, 2014.
DOI: 10.1111/1574-6941.12448   IF=3.875

Morimoto H, Kojima Y, Sizuki Y, Tani S, Kinoshita H, Sakaki A, Mikuni S, Kinjyo M, Kawamata J. A biphenyl type two-photon fluorescence probe for monitoring the mitochondrial membrane potential. Cell Structure and Function 39, 125-133, 2014.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1247/csf.14006

Hoshina R. Size of Paramecium bursaria individuals under cold and dark conditions. Biologia, 69 (8), 1018-1022, 2014.
DOI: 10.2478/s11756-014-0404-6

Dohra H. Tanaka K, Suzuki T, Fujishima M, Suzuki H. Draft genome sequences of three Holospora species (Holospora obtusa, Holospora undulata, and Holospora elegans), endonuclear symbiotic bacteria of the ciliate Paramecium caudatum. FEMS Microbiology Letters (Genome announcements), 359 (1), 16-18, Oct. 2014.
DOI: 10.1111/1574-6968.12577

Kodama Y, Suzuki H, Dohra H, Sugii M, Kitazume T, Yamaguchi K, Shigenobu S, Fujishima M. Comparison of gene expression of Paramecium bursaria with and without Chlorella variabilis symbionts. BMC Genomics, 15:183, 2014.
DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-15-183   IF=4.40

Fujishima M., Kodama Y. Insights into the Paramecium-Holospora and Paramecium-Chlorellasymbioses. In, Cilia/flagella and ciliates/flagellates, (Eds) Hausmann K., Radek R., Schweizerbart Science Publishers, Stuttgart, pp. 203-227, 2014 (Jan14).
ISBN: 978-3-510-65287-7

久富 理、堀 学.ゾウリムシを用いた研究から明らかになった繊毛のエネルギー供給と運動調節機構. Jpn.  J. Protozool., 47 (1, 2), 13-27, 2014.


Kodama Y, Fujishima M. Synchronous induction of detachment and reattachment of symbiotic Chlorella spp. from the cell cortex of the host Paramecium bursaria. Protist, Vol. 164, 660–672, 2013.
DOI: 10.1016/j.protis.2013.07.001   IF = 4.140

Dohra H., Suzuki H., Suzuki T., Tanaka K., Fujishima M. Draft genome sequence of Holospora undulata strain HU1, a micronucleus-specific symbiont of the ciliate Paramecium caudatum. Genome Announcements. July/August 2013 vol. 1 no. 4 e00664-13.
DOI: 10.1128/genomeA.00664-13   IF= 2.74

Kodama Y. Localization of attachment area of the symbiotic Chlorella variabilis of the ciliate Paramecium bursaria during the algal removal and reinfection. Symbiosis, Vol. 60, 25–36, 2013.
DOI: 10.1007/s13199-013-0233-3   IF= 1.107

Kimura E, Deguchi T, Kamei Y, Shoji W, Yuba S, Hitomi J. Application of infrared laser to the zebrafish vascular system: gene induction, tracing, and ablation of single endothelial cells. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, 33 (6) 1264-1270, 2013.
DOI: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.112.300602   IF= 6.99


Kodama Y, Fujishima M. Cell division and density of symbiotic Chlorella variabilis of the ciliate Paramecium bursaria is controlled by the host’s nutritional conditions during early infection process. Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 14(10), 2800–2811, 2012.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1462-2920.2012.02793.x   IF = 5.756

Kodama Y, Fujishima M. Characteristics of the digestive vacuole membrane of the alga-bearing ciliate Paramecium bursaria. Protist, Vol. 163, 658–670, 2012.
DOI: 10.1016/j.protis.2011.10.004   IF= 4.140

Fujishima M, Kodama Y. Endosymbionts in Paramecium. European Journal of Protistology, Vol. 48, 124–137, 2012.
DOI: 10.1016/j.ejop.2011.10.002   IF=1.508

Tani S., Nakagawa K., Honda T., Saito H., Suzuki Y., Kawamata J., Uchida M., Sasaki A., Kinjo M. Fluorescence imaging of mitochondoria in living cells using a novel fluorene derivative with a large two-photon absorption cross-section. Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, 13 (14), 2649–2654, 2012.
ISSN: 1389-2010   IF= 3.087

Kutomi O, Hori M, Ishida M, Tominaga T, Kamachi H, Koll F, Cohn J, Yamada N, Noguchi M. Outer dynein arm light chain 1 is essential for controlling the ciliary response to cuclic AMP in Paramecium tetraurelia. Eukaryotic Cell, 11 (5), 645-653, 2012.
Doi: 10.1128/EC.05279-11   IF=3.333