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P. caudatum strain RB-1 can maintain endonuclear symbiotic bacteria Holospora species. The RB-1 was used to elucidate control mechanisms for cytological events in infection process of Holospora (escape from the host digestive vacuole, migration to the target nucleus, recognition of the host nuclear envelope, invasion inside the nucleus, and proliferation in the nucleus) and for changes of the host gene expression by infection. P. bursaria strains OS1g1N and Yad1g1N are bearing cloned Chlorella variabilis strain 1N cells in the cytoplasm, and used for infection route of the symbiotic alga.



Fujishima M, Kodama Y. Mechanisms for establishing primary and secondary endosymbiosis in Paramecium.
Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. Online publication: March 19, 2022. https://doi.org/10.1111/jeu.12901  IF=3.346

Sonoko Matsumoto S, Watanabe K, Kiyota H, Tachibana M, Shimizu T, Watarai M. Distinction of Paramecium strains by a combination method of RAPD analysis and multiplex PCR.
Plos One, Published: March 11, 2022. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0265139  IF=3.24


Watanabe K, Motonaga A, Tachibana M, Shimizu T, Watarai M. Francisella novicida can utilize Paramecium bursaria as its potential host.
Env Microbiol Rep, 2021.

Akisato M, Yamagishi M, Yajima J. Three-dimensional tracking of the ciliate Tetrahymena reveals the mechanism of ciliary stroke-driven helical swimming.
Communications Biology volume 4, Article number: 1209 (2021).
Published: 21 October 2021 https://www.nature.com/articles/s42003-021-02756-0   IF=5.489

Matsumoto S, Watanabe K, Imamura A, Tachibana M, Shimizu T, Watarai M. Comparative analysis between Paramecium strains with different syngens using the RAPD method.
Microb Ecol. 2021 Sep 15.   IF=4.552
Doi: 10.1007/s00248-021-01864-y

Jenkins et al. Emergent RNA-RNA interactions can promote stability in a facultative phototrophic endosymbiosis.
PNAS, 2021 Vol. 118 No.38 e2108874118.
https://doi.org/10.10.73/pnas.2108874118  IF=9.412

Maeda I, Kudou S, Iwai S. Efficient isolation and cultivation of endosymbiotic Chlorella from Paramecium bursaria on agar plates by co-culture with yeast cells.
Journal of Microbiological Methods. Published online, May 28, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mimet.2021.106254   IF= 1.707

Jenkins BH, Maguire F, Leonard G, Eaton JD, West S, Benjamin E. Housden BE, Milner DS, Richards TA. Characterization of the RNA-interference pathway as a tool for reverse genetic analysis in the nascent phototrophic endosymbiosis, Paramecium bursaria.
Royal Society Open Science. Published: April 21, 2021.
https://doi.org/10.1098/rsos.210140    IF=2.646

Kodama Y, Sumita H. The ciliate Paramecium bursaria allows budding of symbiotic Chlorella variabilis cells singly from the digestive vacuole membrane into the cytoplasm during algal reinfection.
Protoplasma, published online, April 21, 2021.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00709-021-01645-x   IF=2.751


Greczek-Stachura M, Zagata Lesnicka P, Tarcz S, Rautian M, Mozdzen K. Genetic diversity of symbiotic green algae of Paramecium bursaria syngens originating from distant geographical locations.
Plants 2021,10, 609.
https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10030609   IF=3.182

Ishida M, Hori M, Ooba Y, Kinoshita M, Matsutani T, Naito M, Hagimoto T, Miyazaki K, Ueda S, Miura K, Tomonaga T. A functional Aqp1 gene product localizes on the contractile vacuole complex in P. multimicronucleatum.
Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, First published: Jan 27, 2021.
Doi: 10.1111/JEU.12843

Kodama Y, Miyazaki S. Autolysis of Chlorella variabilis in starving Paramecium bursaria help the host cell survive against starvation stress.
Current Microbiology, published online, 03 January 2021.
DOI: 10.1007/s00284-020-02304-9   IF=1.610

Yu-Hsuan Cheng, Chien-Fu Jeff Liu, Yen-Hsin Yu, Yu-Ting Jhou, Masahiro Fujishima, Isheng Jason Tsai, Jun-Yi Leu. Genome plasticity in Paramecium bursaria revealed by population genomics.
BMC Biology (2020) 18:180. Online publication, Nov 30, 2020.
https://doi.org/10.1186/s12915-020-00912-2   IF= 6.765

Mutsumi Kawano, Takashi Tominaga, Masaki Ishida, Manabu Hori. Roles of adenylate cyclases in ciliary responses of Paramecium to mechanical stimulation.
Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, 67 (5), 532-540, 2020.
First published: 07 May 2020
https://doi.org/10.1111/jeu.12800    IF=2.143

Watanabe K, Higuchi Y, Shimmura M, Tachibana M, Fujishima M, Shimizu T, Watarai M. Peculiar Paramecium hosts fail to establish a stable intracellular relationship with Legionella pneumophila.Frontiers in Microbiology, 23 October 2020.
https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.596731   IF=4.235
Press release (2020.04.15): https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.596731



Aoyagi S, Kodama Y, Passarelli M, Vorng J L, Kawashima T, Yoshikiyo K, Yamamoto T, and Gilmore I. OrbiSIMS imaging identifies molecular constituents of the perialgal vacuole membrane of Paramecium bursaria with symbiotic Chlorella variabilis.
Analytical Chemistry, 91, 22, 14545-14551, 2019. Publication Date:October 17, 2019.
DOI: 10.1021/acs.analchem.9b03571   IF=6.785

Thind AS, Vital V, Guarracino MR, Catania F. What’s genetic variation got to do with it? Starvation-induced self-fertilization enhances survival in Paramecium.
Genome Biology and Evolution, evaa052. Published online: March 12, 2020.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/gbe/evaa052   IF=3.462

Iwai S, Kyosuke Fujita K, Takanishi Y, Fukushi K. Photosynthetic endosymbionts benefit from host’s phagotrophy, including predation on potential competitors.
Current Biology 29, 1-6, 2019. Published online: Sept. 5, 2019.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2019.07.074  IF=9.601

原生生物.2 (1), 15-24, 2019.


Watanabe K, Suzuki H, Nishida T, Mishima M, Tachibana M, Fujishima M, Shimizu T, Watarai M. Identification of novel Legionella genes required for endosymbiosis in Paramecium based on comparative genome analysis with Holospora spp.
FEMS Microbiology Ecology, fiy162. Published: Aug 14, 2018.
https://doi.org/10.1093/femsec/fiy162   IF=4.098

Yukinori Nishigami, Takuya Ohmura, Atsushi Taniguchi, Shigenori Nonaka, Junichi Manabe, Takuji Ishikawa, Masatoshi Ichikawa. Influence of cellular shape on sliding behavior of ciliates.
Communicative & Integrative Biology. Published online: 15 Aug 2018.
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/19420889.2018.1506666    IF=2.284

Ewan J. A. Minter, Chris D. Lowe, Megan E. S. Sørensen, A. Jamie Wood, Duncan D. Cameron, Michael A. Brockhurst.Variation and asymmetry in host-symbiont dependence in a microbial symbiosis.
BMC Evolutionary Biology, 2018, 18:108. Published on July 9, 2018.
Doi: 10.1186/s12862-018-1227-9   IF=3.045

Takashi Nishida, Naho Hara, Kenta Watanabe, Takashi Shimizu, Masahiro Fujishima, Masahisa Watarai. Crucial role of Legionella pneumophila TolC in the inhibition of cellular trafficking in the protistan host Paramecium tetraurelia. Frontiers in Microbiology 9:800. Published online on April 25, 2018.
Doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.00800    IF=4.259

Ohmura T, Nishigami Y, Taniguchi A, Nonaka S, Manabe J, Ishikawa T, Ichikawa M. Simple mechanosense and response of cilia motion reveal the intrinsic habits of ciliates. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018, 115, 3231-36
Doi:10.1073/pnas.1718294115      IF=9.580

Kawai S, Araki S, Kodama Y. No mutual symbiosis following infection of alga-free Paramecium bursaria with symbiotic algae from Mayorella viridis.
Symbiosis. 75, 51-59, 2018.
Doi: 10.1007/s13199-017-0517-0    IF=2.009


Miura T, Moriya H, Iwai S. (2017). Assessing phagotrophy in the mixotrophic ciliate Paramecium bursaria using GFP-expressing yeast cells. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 364 (12), [fnx117]. DOI: 10.1093/femsle/fnx117    IF=1.735

Ishida M, Nori M. Improved isolation method to establishe axenic strains of Paramecium. Jpn J Protozool., 2017.
DOI: 10.18980/jjprotozool. JJP16-05 Published online Apple, 2017.

Kodama Y, Nagase M, Takeshima A. Symbiotic Chlorella variabilis strain, 1 N, can influence the digestive process in the host Paramecium bursaria during early infection. Symbiosis, 71 (1), 47-55, 2017.
DOI: 10.1007/s13199-016-0411-1 Published online May 05, 2016.    IF=1.713

渡邉健太, 度会雅久. レジオネラとその宿主としての原生生物.
山口獣医学雑誌. 2017, 44, 1-8


Kodama Y., Fujishima M. Chapter 16. Paramecium as a model organism for studies on primary and secondary endosymbiosis'. In, Biocommunication in ciliates, (Ed, (Eds. Guenther Witzany, Mariusz Nowacki), Springer International Publishing Switzerland, 2016.
ISBN: 978-3-319-32209-4

Watanabe K., Nakao R, Imoto Y., Fujishima M, Tachibana M., Shimizu T., Watarai M. Ciliate Paramecium is a natural reservoir of Legionella pneumophila. Scientific Reports 6, Article number 24322 (2016).
DOI: 10.1038/srep24322 (2016).    IF=4.259

Kuroiwa T., Ohnuma M., Imoto Y., Misumi O., Nagata N., Miyakawa I., Fujishima M,.Yagisawa F., Kuroiwa H. Genome Size of the Ultrasmall Unicellular Freshwater Green Alga, Medakamo hakoo 311, as Determined by Staining with 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole after Microwave Oven Treatments: II. Comparison with Cyanidioschyzon merolae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (n, 2n), and Chlorella variabilis. Cytologia, 81 (1), 1-8, 2016.    IF=0.913


Iwai S., Fujiwara K., Tamura T. Maintenance of algal endosymbionts in Paramecium bursaria: a simple model based on population dynamics. Environmental Microbiology, accepted manuscript online: 2 Dec 2015.
DOI: 10.1111/1462-2920.13140    IF=5.932

Kodama Y., Fujishima M. Differences in infectivity of endosymbiotic Chlorella variabilis that are cultivated outside the host Paramecium bursaria for 50 years and that are immediately isolated from the host cells after 1 year reendosymbiosis. Biology Open (2015) 0, 1-7.
DOI: 10.1242/bio.013946    IF=2.465

Narematsu N., Quek R., Chiam K.-H. , Iwadate Y. Ciliary metachronal wave propagation on the compliant surface of Paramecium cells. Cytoskeleton, 72, 63-646, 2015.
DOI: 10.1002/cm.21266    IF=2.316

Dohra H., Fujishima M., Suzuki H. Analysis of amino acid and codon usage in Paramecium bursaria. FEBS Letters, 589, 3113-3118, 2015.
DOI: 10.1016/j.febslet.2015.08.033     IF=3.519

Goto H, Nakajima K. Cultivation of paramecium caudatum in the presence of physiologically active substances, and a redox active polymer. International Letter of Chemical Astrom., 7, 26-29, 2015.


Kodama Y., Fujishima M. Symbiotic Chlorella variabilis incubated under constant dark condition for 24 hours loses ability to avoid digestion by host lysosomal enzymes in digestive vacuoles of host ciliate Paramecium bursaria. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 90, 946-955, 2014.
DOI: 10.1111/1574-6941.12448     IF=3.568

Morimoto H, Kojima Y, Sizuki Y, Tani S, Kinoshita H, Sakaki A, Mikuni S, Kinjyo M, Kawamata J. A biphenyl type two-photon fluorescence probe for monitoring the mitochondrial membrane potential. Cell Structure and Function 39, 125-133, 2014.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1247/csf.14006    IF=1.684

Hoshina R. Size of Paramecium bursaria individuals under cold and dark conditions. Biologia, 69 (8), 1018-1022, 2014.
DOI: 10.2478/s11756-014-0404-6    IF=0.827

Dohra H. Tanaka K, Suzuki T, Fujishima M, Suzuki H. Draft genome sequences of three Holospora species (Holospora obtusa, Holospora undulata, and Holospora elegans), endonuclear symbiotic bacteria of the ciliate Paramecium caudatum. FEMS Microbiology Letters (Genome announcements), 359 (1), 16-18, Oct. 2014.
DOI: 10.1111/1574-6968.12577    IF=2.121

Kodama Y, Suzuki H, Dohra H, Sugii M, Kitazume T, Yamaguchi K, Shigenobu S, Fujishima M. Comparison of gene expression of Paramecium bursaria with and without Chlorella variabilis symbionts. BMC Genomics, 15:183, 2014.
DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-15-183    IF=3.986

Fujishima M., Kodama Y. Insights into the Paramecium-Holospora and Paramecium-Chlorella symbioses. In, Cilia/flagella and ciliates/flagellates, (Eds) Hausmann K., Radek R., Schweizerbart Science Publishers, Stuttgart, pp. 203-227, 2014 (Jan14).
ISBN: 978-3-510-65287-7

久富 理、堀 学.ゾウリムシを用いた研究から明らかになった繊毛のエネルギー供給と運動調節機構. Jpn.  J. Protozool., 47 (1, 2), 13-27, 2014.


Kodama Y, Fujishima M. Synchronous induction of detachment and reattachment of symbiotic Chlorella spp. from the cell cortex of the host Paramecium bursaria. Protist, Vol. 164, 660–672, 2013.
DOI: 10.1016/j.protis.2013.07.001    IF = 3.558

Dohra H., Suzuki H., Suzuki T., Tanaka K., Fujishima M. Draft genome sequence of Holospora undulata strain HU1, a micronucleus-specific symbiont of the ciliate Paramecium caudatum. Genome Announcements. July/August 2013 vol. 1 no. 4 e00664-13.
DOI: 10.1128/genomeA.00664-13    IF= 2.74

Kodama Y. Localization of attachment area of the symbiotic Chlorella variabilis of the ciliate Paramecium bursaria during the algal removal and reinfection. Symbiosis, Vol. 60, 25–36, 2013.
DOI: 10.1007/s13199-013-0233-3    IF= 0.941

Kimura E, Deguchi T, Kamei Y, Shoji W, Yuba S, Hitomi J. Application of infrared laser to the zebrafish vascular system: gene induction, tracing, and ablation of single endothelial cells. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, 33 (6) 1264-1270, 2013.
DOI: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.112.300602    IF= 5.533


Kodama Y, Fujishima M. Cell division and density of symbiotic Chlorella variabilis of the ciliate Paramecium bursaria is controlled by the host’s nutritional conditions during early infection process. Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 14(10), 2800–2811, 2012.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1462-2920.2012.02793.x    IF = 5.756

Fujishima M, Kodama Y. Endosymbionts in Paramecium. European Journal of Protistology, Vol. 48, 124–137, 2012.
DOI: 10.1016/j.ejop.2011.10.002    IF=1.508

Tani S., Nakagawa K., Honda T., Saito H., Suzuki Y., Kawamata J., Uchida M., Sasaki A., Kinjo M. Fluorescence imaging of mitochondoria in living cells using a novel fluorene derivative with a large two-photon absorption cross-section. Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, 13 (14), 2649–2654, 2012.
ISSN: 1389-2010    IF= 2.690